Maillard Bochet – An Experimental Mead

In this video and blog post, I’m exploring the use of Maillard reactions as a way to produce a unique and tasty bochet (caramelized honey mead). A traditional bochet is prepared using honey that has been heated until it caramelizes. The resulting mead will have flavours of caramel, toasted marshmallows, and if caramelized darkly, roasted and even burnt notes. Maillard reactions are quite different – these are what give bread crust or a nicely seared steak their wonderful flavour.

Maillard reactions occur when a sugar is heated in the presence of protein, especially under basic (alkaline) conditions. The sugars react with the amino acids in the protein, and undergo a complex series of reactions, producing hundreds of flavour and colourful products. Maillard reactions produce a range of flavours including nutty, stone/dried fruit, as well as caramelized flavours.

Maillard reactions are what drive flavour formation in Belgian-style candi sugar. Over the years I’ve developed a refined methods for making Belgian-style candi syrup at home – producing a product that cannot be differentiated by most drinkers from commercial candi syrup. So I’ve decided to apply these methods to a mead, to see how this would change the flavour compared to a traditional (caramelized) bochet. If you are interested in my approach to making Belgian candi syrup, please see this blog post and this youtube video.

The video that accompanies this blog post can be found at the bottom of the page, or at this Youtube link.

The Recipe

To ensure I had something to compare to, I replicated my Bourbon Bochet recipe from earlier this year – going to the extreme of even using the same honey from the same bee hive. The recipe was simple, and straight forward:

The recipe for this mead is very simple. For 4L (~1.2 US gallons):

  • 1.25 kg caramelized honey
  • 1.2 g of Lavin K1V-1116 yeast
  • 3.6 g nutrient additions (White Labs W1000 nutrient)
  • ~12 charred medium American oak cubes
Maillard mead - toasting oak cubes
Charring the oak for the Maillard Mead

I heated the honey to just above boiling (100C) in a large pot, and once a firm boil was reached (temperature around 115C) I added a tablespoon (15 ml) of 1 M food grade lye (I prepared 25 ml total, by dissolving 2 g of lye/sodium hydroxide into 25 ml of water). I heated, holding the temperature between 125 and 135 C until the desired darkness was reached – a deep mahogany brown.

honey darkening as the maillard reactions progress
Darkening of the honey as the Maillard reactions progress.

Once the honey was dark enough, I added ~2L of ice-cold dechlorinated water to cool the sugar. This was then poured into a 4 L fermenter, and the yeast nutrient mixed in. I then topped up with more dechlorinated cold water, and once everything had cooled to pitching temperature (18C), I added the rehydrated yeast.


botteling the bochet

Fermentation was straight-forward. I held the mead at 18.5 C for 4 weeks. It stopped bubbling around the 2.5 week mark, but I left it for the full four to ensure it cleaned up any off flavours. I then cold-crashed the mead and transferred it to a clean fermenter with a dozen heavily charred medium-toast American oak cubes. The mead sat on the cubes for a week. This was not nearly long enough – but I was following the Bourbon Bochet recipe exactly. At the end of the week I transferred to a clean fermenter, stabilized with potassium metabisulfite and potassium sorbate, and bottled.

Tasting Notes – Maillard Bochet

Appearance: Deep red-brown.

Aroma: Dried dark fruits (figs, raisins), marzipan/almonds and caramel.

Flavour: Port-like, with a deep and rich dried fruit flavour, overlaid on a nut and caramel base. Appreciable honey flavour, although it is a minor note hidden behind the bolder fruit, nut and caramel flavours. Despite its higher finishing gravity (1.019), only modestly sweet. Slight “burnt” astringency, some modest alcohol heat (likely due to the young age of the mead). After taste is a lingering caramel sweetness with a hint of honey and burnt raisins.

Mouthfeel: Rich and coating. Much like a port or dessert wine.

Overall: One of the best meads I’ve ever brewed, and hands-down the best bochet (if it can be called that) that I have ever tried. Rich and complex, well balanced and interesting flavours, and a wonderful finish. Everything a mead should be. My only regret is only making four litres of it.

The Video

11 thoughts on “Maillard Bochet – An Experimental Mead

  • February 15, 2023 at 10:26 AM

    What’s the purpose on adding Lye?

    • February 15, 2023 at 7:59 PM

      The goal is to drive malliard reactions between the sugars and proteins in the honey. This is what produced the dried fruit flavours in the mead. To drive those reactions, a strong base like lye (lime, AKA calcium hydroxide also works) is needed. If you don’t add a strong base caramelization reactions dominate, creating a more traditional bochet.

      • February 17, 2023 at 2:54 AM

        Thanks Bryan, I stumbled upon your site about 6 days ago when doing a lab report on the enumeration of wild yeast and bacteria from a lambic. I was blown away by your page as a resource and used your Sourvisiae article as a reference when referring to the evolution of the GMO yeasts available. You have great content and I fully intend to read all of your material. I too am a Canadian, however living and studying in Ireland. BSc in Brewing & Distilling. Thanks for all your effort in the creation of your page, its great to find such a good resource when I’m completely infatuated with Lambic/ spontaneous fermented beers.

  • January 4, 2023 at 12:29 PM

    Fantastic idea Bryan! A month ago I made two identical Bochets, with one Boched with the addition of caustic soda (Maillard). They tasted completely different as a must and during fermentation! the standard Bochet had much more sediment (I assume that that precipitate protein was integrated during the Maillard reaction – hence the Maillard Bochet having much less sediment). I’ll be transferring them to secondary and adding oak chips (probably smoked). Thank you for this idea! will do a real taste test in 1-3 months

    • January 4, 2023 at 12:58 PM

      Cool – let us know how it turns out!

  • February 19, 2022 at 8:44 PM

    I’m keen to give this a try and am sourcing some local honey to give it a go. I have a quick question – in your posts about the belgian candi sugar you mention adding DME to the sugar to provide the protein required for the Maillard reaction. But I don’t see if mentioned in your Maillard Bochet recipe here?

    Is it not required or have I misunderstood the process?

    Also am I right in thinking that you add the yeast nutrient at a later stage, once fermentation has started?


    • February 23, 2022 at 8:39 AM

      You do not need to add a protein source to honey as the small amount of pollen and enzymes already present in the honey provide enough protein. Pure sugar is different, as it lacks any detectable amounts of protein.

      Yeast nutrient is added once fermentation has started – I use a TONSA approach, using the calculator in beersmith, which works well.

      • March 5, 2022 at 12:18 AM

        Sorry I only just saw your reply! Thanks so much – the protein in the honey aspect makes sense now I think about it.

        Really keen to give this a go, just waiting on some honey from a friend 🙂

  • January 22, 2021 at 9:45 AM

    I am sure will get some very unique flavors, and intending to add some usual caramelized honey for another layer of flavors.
    Even that it’s not malliard only, the taste of caramelized honey we already know.
    Anyway by malliard process we’re loosing flavors because of the higher heat.

    Let’s get started!
    I will send testing comments-in about 4/5 Months.


  • January 19, 2021 at 11:20 PM

    Hi I am wondering what if I try the maillard process but at 60c for a long period of time, -maybe 3 months-like the blackening process, its suppose to be mor healthy and more easier to cline…

    • January 21, 2021 at 6:52 PM

      I don’t know of anyone whose tried it – may be an interesting experiment! One issue I can see is that part of the flavour I got was from caramelization/burning of the sugar, in addition to the maillard reactions. I wonder if you’d get a similar degree of complexity if you did a 60C/3 month reaction…


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